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Saudi Arabia factfile


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History timeline

570 (approx.)

The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is born in Makkah.

611 (approx.)

The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) experiences a vision of the Angel Gabriel while meditating in a cave near Makkah in which he receives the verses later collected as the Qu‘ran.

613

The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) begins preaching in public.

622

The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) migrates from Makkah to Madinah. From this migration all Muslim history is dated.

632

The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) dies in Madinah.

706-709

The Mosque of the Prophet in Madinah is rebuilt in stone and decorated with marble and mosaics.

750

Tha Abbasid Caliphate begins

1700

Birth of Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdulwahhab.

1725

Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Mugrin dies. His descendants adopt the name Saud for their tribe.

1745

Muhammad ibn Saud welcomes Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdulwahhab to al-Diriyah.

1773

Abdul Aziz Ibn Muhammad al-Saud captures Riyadh.

1773-1788

Abdul Aziz Ibn Muhammad  secures control of all Najd.

1789-90

Paramount tribe of al-Hasa crushed by 1803 Saud ibn Abdulaziz has captured Makkah & Medinah and parts of Oman and the Yemen.

1823

The Ottomans strike back and capture Saud. Turki Ibn Abdullah recaptures  Riyadh. He proclaims the re-establishment of the Saudi State. Turki is succeeded by Faysal who, although captured twice by the Egyptians escapes and Arabia enjoys a period of peace and prosperity until his death in 1865.

1871

Ottomans take control of the province of Hasa.

1876

Birth of Abdulaziz Al Sa’ud.

1891

Al Sa’ud family are exiled to Kuwait.

1902

Abdulaziz Al Sa’ud captures Riyadh and is soon master of Najd.

1908

Turks complete Hejaz Railway between Damascus and Medinah…rendered inoperative by T.E. Lawrence during WW1.

1912

Ikhwan (Brotherhood) is founded.

1913

Abdul Aziz captures Al Hasa. British  arrange transport of Turkish troops out of Al Hasa  (present-day Eastern Province)… spheres of influence generally define what will become Saudi Arabia ’s southern borders.

1921

Abdulaziz takes the title Sultan of Najd.

1922

Boundary with Iraq and Kuwait are agreed upon, along with creation of the Neutral Zones… present Iraq boundary est. in 1981.

1924-27

Abdulaziz conquers Hejaz and most of Asir and becomes King of Hejaz and Najd and its dependencies…deposed leaders receive British sponsorship in establishment of kingdoms in Jordan and Iraq.

1932

Abdulaziz is proclaimed King and unifies all regions over which he reigns… creating the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (23 Sept) 1932.

1933

Sa’ud is named Crown Prince, Saudi Arabia. Oil concession agreement signed with Standard Oil Company of California establishes jointly owned exploration and production company… renamed Aramco in 1944.

1934

Treaty of Taif ends brief border war with Yemen and partially defines Saudi southern boundary.

1938

Discovery of oil in commercial quantities near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

1947-50

Construction of Trans-Arabian pipeline (Tapline) to the Mediterranean via Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

1953

King Abdulaziz dies and is succeeded by eldest son Sa’ud.

1960

OPEC formed with Saudi Arabia (founding member), Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela as charter members.

1964

Crown Prince Faisal becomes King of Saudi Arabia.

1967

Saudi Arabia and UAR (Egypt) end confrontation in Yemen civil war.

1968

Offshore boundary with Iran delimited by treaty.

1970

The OIC founded in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

1973

Following October War, Saudis lead Arab oil boycott.

1975

King Faisal is assassinated by his nephew…Khalid becomes King.

1979

Extremists seize the Grand Mosque of Makkah
Diplomatic relations broken with Egypt over Camp David accords…relations restored in 1987.

1981

Saudi Arabia is a founder member of the GCC.

1982

King Khalid dies. His brother Fahd becomes King.

1988

Saudis play major role in bringing cease-fire to Iran-Iraq war.

1990

Saudi Arabia condemns the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and offers residents in exile to Kuwaiti leaders.

1990-91

Coalition forces invited to use Saudi bases during Gulf War.

1991

International coalition attacks Iraq.

1992

Saudi Arabia arrange Peace accord in Lebanon. The Taif accord are signed by all members of Lebanese  Parliament, ending Lebanese civil war  

1993

Consultative Council inaugurated in Saudi Arabia

2001

Saudi and Iran sign major security accord

2005

First Elections held in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to local councils

2005

King Fahd dies. His brother Abdullah becomes King.


Photograph courtesy of Peter Sanders.


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